GMFC Brethren… Are you a Disciple?
Hello brethren. I wanted to encourage you to make sure we are all walking with Jesus as HE want’s us to; as true disciples. 1st, let’s start off reading Luke 14 which is a personal call to discipleship from Jesus. Please remember brethren, EVERY member of your fellowship/church must be a disciple who MAKES disciples, lest they perish eternally. This is so important as you are responsible, in positions of teachers, to make sure this happens. If it is not, you need to reorganize your life and teachings to make sure it is. Again ,everyone in your church/under your teaching must be a disciple, making disciples. Every Christian must be a disciple making disciples. The Gospel Call (the Great Commission) is to become a disciple and make disciples who make disciples, and so on. Sorry for being repetitive, but it’s incredibly important to count the true cost, to pick up our cross and follow Jesus, truly follow Him. Be edified and I pray you read and study below carefully. Jesus bless you all. -Jimmy
Luke 14:1 And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.
Luk 14:2 And, behold, there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy.
Luk 14:3 And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day?
Luk 14:4 And they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go;
Luk 14:5 And answered them, saying, Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath day?
Luk 14:6 And they could not answer him again to these things.
Luk 14:7 And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief rooms; saying unto them,
Luk 14:8 When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room; lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden of him;
Luk 14:9 And he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room.
Luk 14:10 But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee.
Luk 14:11 For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
Luk 14:12 Then said he also to him that bade him, When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbours; lest they also bid thee again, and a recompence be made thee.
Luk 14:13 But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind:
Luk 14:14 And thou shalt be blessed; for they cannot recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just.
Luk 14:15 And when one of them that sat at meat with him heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God.
Luk 14:16 Then said he unto him, A certain man made a great supper, and bade many:
Luk 14:17 And sent his servant at supper time to say to them that were bidden, Come; for all things are now ready.
Luk 14:18 And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it: I pray thee have me excused.
Luk 14:19 And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them: I pray thee have me excused.
Luk 14:20 And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.
Luk 14:21 So that servant came, and shewed his lord these things. Then the master of the house being angry said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the halt, and the blind.
Luk 14:22 And the servant said, Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded, and yet there is room.
Luk 14:23 And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled.
Luk 14:24 For I say unto you, That none of those men which were bidden shall taste of my supper.
Luk 14:25 And there went great multitudes with him: and he turned, and said unto them,
Luk 14:26 If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.
Luk 14:27 And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple.
Luk 14:28 For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?
Luk 14:29 Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him,
Luk 14:30 Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.
Luk 14:31 Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand?
Luk 14:32 Or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions of peace.
Luk 14:33 So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple.
Luk 14:34 Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned?
Luk 14:35 It is neither fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghill; but men cast it out. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
You Can’t Make a Disciple If You Are Not A Disciple
You cannot make a disciple if you are not a disciple. If you are not a disciple, then you are something
Jesus did not call men to become and something He never sent men out to make. Jesus gets to set the
criteria as to what a disciple is. We do not care what the dictionary or the lexicon says a disciple is.
We are addressing what Jesus says a disciple is. Theologians don’t get to define discipleship, your
pastor does not and neither do you and I. Jesus called men to become disciples repeatedly. Here is how
He calls disciples and defines disciples.
Luke 14: 25 Now great crowds accompanied him, and he turned and said to them, 26 “If anyone comes
to me and does not hate his own father and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes,
and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple. 27 Whoever does not bear his own cross and come
after me cannot be my disciple. 28 For which of you, desiring to build a tower, does not first sit down
and count the cost, whether he has enough to complete it? 29 Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation
and is not able to finish, all who see it begin to mock him,30 saying, ‘This man began to build and was
not able to finish.’ 31 Or what king, going out to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first
and deliberate whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty
thousand? 32 And if not, while the other is yet a great way off, he sends a delegation and asks for terms
of peace. 33 So therefore, any one of you who does not renounce all that he has cannot be my disciple.
Some translations render the closing statement, “whoever does not give up everything he has cannot be
Jesus not only came to make disciples but He also commanded disciples to go on and
make more disciples. See the Great Commission. It is His method of expanding the Kingdom of God.
But I really like the wording of the verse listed here. “Any of you who does not renounce all that he
has…”. Renounce. Not a word we hear in modern Christianity. To renounce something is to formally
declare one’s abandonment of a claim, a right or possession. I have a question. Have you formally
renounced or abandoned your claim, your right to all but Christ. Have you renounced your right to
your own possessions, your own life and chosen Jesus and Him alone?
I am a disciple maker and that should excite you. It should excite you because, frankly, I am, really, just
a regular guy. I am a man of average intelligence, average education and like you, for most of my
Christian life, no one ever trained me on how to make a disciple. I now understand, I could not make a
disciple, because I was not even a disciple myself. I began to understand that I had not answered the
call to be a disciple, because somewhere along the road after surrendering to the Lord Jesus, I was
talked out of actually following Him. As a new believer, I read of giving up everything for Jesus. But
as I shared this understanding I was told by leaders and my peers that for various reasons, Jesus did not
really mean all that “give up everything, and hate the world stuff”. Seems He really just wanted me to
be willing to be really committed, and not to actually live out that commitment. Being a new believer,
I assumed these experienced Christians knew what was best. I became like them. About 6 years ago I
met Marc , and we began to discuss, the Kingdom of God, real discipleship and real disciple
making. I read some books with a new perspective. I came back to my original position of actually
following Jesus. I came to understand that I needed to “renounce” all else. For the first time it became
clear that Jesus wanted my total allegiance. I had to abandon the rhetoric of Western Christianity and
follow Jesus in order to heed the call to become a disciple and make disciples myself. This was God’s
I am blessed to walk with Marc as he disciples me, because he is one of the only people I have ever
met that is going to the lost, leading them into genuine repentance, faith and baptism and making
disciples, that are making disciples. Since that is the Great Commission, I am following his lead. I am
sure there are many others making disciples. It would be awesome if you could find one and like me,
learn from them. Trust me, you can’t do it Jesus’ way by using the internet. You can’t do it from
reading this post. Sorry, I hope that was not your expectation. Discipleship is a personal interaction
between a practitioner and an apprentice.
Most of us are not disciples ourselves. We are “just” believers. Some are bible teachers, pastors,
construction workers, mothers and other professionals that think the transfer of information is making a
disciple. We think the people we share with are disciples. But neither them, nor most of us, have ever
been given the call to become a disciple, nor chosen to pay the price of discipleship. Not formally
anyway. Of course, we do transfer information in making disciples, but that is only part of the process.
You can go buy books on discipleship if you choose. But the books I have read are written by men that
don’t actually “have” disciples. Marc, actually has disciples that are making disciples. Now, after being
discipled by Marc, I do too. You can be and have disciples also, and I hope that is your intention. I
assure you it is God’s intention for you.
First in Luke 14 we see how He defines a disciple or if you prefer we see the actual CALL to
discipleship. He is not asking people to “get saved” believe in the price He will pay on Calvary, nor is
He begging them to become a Christian. He does not even promise them heaven. No, He is calling
them to give up EVERYTHING and come and follow Him. He promises life now and it is called
You and I were mostly taught one of two things. Either, everyone that is saved is a disciple or a person
becomes a real disciple through study and prayer and a lifetime of slowly growing closer to Jesus.
Then in some super spiritual state, some can somehow become so mature they are a disciple. There
are other fuzzy definitions and most don’t even think being a disciple is important. Jesus did. But our
classroom, white board definitions, power point presentations and sermons are not the methods He
used. Why don’t we look at what Jesus did? Why don’t we study the one that actually gave us the
mission and made disciples that turned the world upside down, instead of some well meaning bible
teacher that has never actually made a disciple, that has made a disciple. Why don’t we look at Jesus
first, before we do anything. I ask, why do we call Him Master and do not do what He commands or
follow His methods? His first words after repent and be baptized for the Kingdom of God is at hand,
are these: Follow Me. Why don’t WE answer the call to discipleship and call others to do the same?
I would like to ask you to make a very startling realization. And that is that you have most likely never
been told of the call to discipleship and thus have never heeded it. Like me, you need to come to a
place to confess an obvious truth. No one has ever called you to BE a disciple. Thus you have never
chosen to become one. You think you want to be one. You love Jesus. You want to follow Him. But
you have been told you can’t or it is not important or that verses talking about grace and works
somehow mystically erased everything the King of Kings commanded us to do. I decided to become a
disciple. You may already be one. But you must chose. Our calls to pray a prayer, believe the four
spiritual laws, or a set of orthodox beliefs in order to go to heaven and be “saved” are seen no where in
scripture, being practiced by Jesus or the Apostles. As a result, unlike Jesus, we can’t accomplish
God’s plans using man’s methods. We use the culturally attractive, best practices of the latest fad to get
the “unchurched” to come to our meetings, to occasionally listen in to a sermon while being entertained
by lights, sound and a warm fuzzy message on how great we are or can be if we would just “get
saved”. This was not Jesus way. Our warm and fuzzy call to the lost so they can go to heaven and have
their “best life now”, must be replaced with the call to surrender everything and take up your cross and
follow Him. Jesus made a call and it was to come and die that you may live. No wonder people in the
church will compromise on marriage, entertain pornography and fall sway to the whims of the world.
We call them to a nice easy and better life full of all the world has to offer with the added bonus of
eternity at the end and some really cool people to hang with in church till then. Contrast that to Jesus
call to give up and renounce everything. For three centuries the church suffered in torture, refused to
renounce their Lord and paid the ultimate price. They were known for living holy lives, feeding the
poor and their love for the least of these. This is the fruit of a people called to discipleship.
Luke 14, and other text repeatedly make calls of total commitment. You must give up all and come and
follow Him. It is hard to be confused when Jesus lays down the requirements and relates to us to hate
or choose Him over every relationship in our life, take up an instrument of death and yes, give up
everything, including ourselves and follow Him.
He does this in Luke and again in Matthew 10:
37 “Anyone who loves their father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; anyone who loves
their son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. 38 Whoever does not take up their cross and
follow me is not worthy of me. 39 Whoever finds their life will lose it, and whoever loses their life for
my sake will find it.
And of course most of us never dropped our nets. Andrew and Peter literally dropped their nets to
follow Jesus. Matthew got up from the tax collectors table and walked away. Zachias seems to remain
in his profession and reordered his priorities to the Kingdom of God. But let’s be honest, many of us
have fashioned our lives around our careers to such an extent they would need to be, almost literally,
blown up and started over again, to follow Jesus. As a business owner I spent 80 hours a week
working. We spend the vast majority of our time, focusing on our careers and sleeping. Our spare time
in the West is mostly spent entertaining ourselves or trying to replace purpose with “fun”. God has a
bigger plan. And we are accountable to follow Him, not our self made plans. I will tell you there is no
joy like serving the King of Kings. No adventure like obeying His will and commands. One man
stated once that we were made for the Kingdom of God. We were engineered to be happy, challenged
and fulfilled walking the Kingdom way.
I spoke at a traditional church years ago. I stepped down from the podium and pointed at a young man
and ask him what he did. What was his job? A teacher, he replied. I went around the room asking the
question to others. They answered, doctor, salesman, administrator, student, intern, entrepreneur. I
then asked if they followed Jesus. They all nodded. I told them then, their job, their mandate, was to
make disciples. They only taught, studied, managed and ran their business to fund and provide for their
true career. Making disciples. I was not trying to make a point of semantics, but of a necessary priority
change. They needed to “drop their net” and follow Jesus. For most in the building it would require a
counting of the cost and a radical change in lifestyle. We glaze over verse after verse where Jesus calls
for a radical lifestyle shift to follow Him and think, wow that is cool. Jesus said some radical things,
back in His day. Then we act like they have nothing to do with us. I have a new paradigm for you.
Jesus meant them for you. And I want to tell you that you need to renounce your current way of
viewing the world, your career and yes that is your job I am talking about. In the American culture
sports, jobs, money and advancement are what we place the most time, energy and money on, in order
to aquire the American Dream. Oh, we Christians put a Christian spin on it, but we don’t really
renounce anything of the world, but somehow imagine it does not matter, even as Jesus says it does.
Jesus makes some profound calls to discipleship. Let’s look at some. First, the rich young ruler. We all
get all bothered that Jesus asked him to sell all he had and come and follow me and then make a million
excuses and run to theologians who assure us that Jesus did not mean what He said. It was just said for
that bad young rich guy. But Jesus repeated that call to his disciples, the church practiced it in the book
of Acts and the history of the early church tells us that sacrificial giving and lifestyle choices to make
room for serving God were the norm.
Here is a quote from Ignatius a personal disciple of John.
r] I write to you in the midst of life, yet lusting after death. My lust has been crucified, and there is no
fire of material longing in me, but only living water speaking in me, saying within me, Come to the
Father. I have no delight in the food of corruption or in the delights of this life. I desire no longer to live
after the manner of men. Ignatius: to the Romans (A.D. 35-105) ch.7
Here is a section from The Shepherd of Hermas, some believe was written while the Apostles were still
alive. It is clear this was the understanding of the church, renouncing the worldly pursuits and
He said to me; “You know that you, who are the servants of God, are dwelling in a foreign land; for
your city is far from this city. If then you know your city, in which you shall dwell, why do you here
prepare fields and expensive displays and buildings and dwelling-chambers which are superfluous? He,
therefore, that prepares these things for this city does not purpose to return to his own city.
O foolish and double-minded and miserable man, do you not perceive that all these things are foreign,
and are under the power of another?” Hermas (A.D. 150) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.2 pg. 30
Where did they get such crazy ideas, these men that lived and walked among the disciples? Why, from
the Apostles that were discipling them! And they turned the world upside down. Take the Apostle John
Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the
Father is not in him. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the
pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. 1 John 2:15-16
Back to the concept of giving up everything for the Kingdom of God. This time the instructions are not
to the rich young ruler, but to men that were already following Jesus and NOT rich.
32 “Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom. 33 Sell
your possessions and give to the poor. Provide purses for yourselves that will not wear out, a treasure in
heaven that will never fail, where no thief comes near and no moth destroys. 34 For where your
treasure is, there your heart will be also.
I was taught the rich young man had a big problem, but that this hard teaching was only in his case.
Apparently I was misinformed. Jesus repeated it to His own key men. I suspect it is recorded in these
two instances, not because He only said it twice, but because it is something Jesus talked about to
crowds often. But let’s not get hung up on the money aspect just yet. The disciples must have been
looked at as irresponsible, crazed fanatics by their friends and family. They abandoned a career in the
family business. Matthew had it made as a tax collector. He was set for life. Should you chose to
become a disciple and thus a disciple maker you will have to reorder your life. Jesus was not speaking
platitudes. He was not giving a three point sermon. He was teaching us and telling us how to follow
Him and be and make disciples. If your career has you consumed so much that you don’t have enough
energy to read your bible for more than a few minutes and pray before bed, attend church a couple of
times a week and visit your Facebook buddies and cheer each other’s “Christian” post while
bemoaning the decent of mankind, then you have a life designed to be something other than an disciple.
Again, then you are something Jesus never called men to be and never sent men out to make.
One man Jesus called, said let me go bury my father. Jesus said let the dead bury the dead, but you go
and preach the Kingdom of God.
Another said he would follow Jesus anywhere and Jesus pointed out the cost. Foxes have holes and the
birds of the air have nest, but the Son of man has no place to lay His head.
Another says I will follow you but let me go home first and say goodbye to my family. Jesus said no
one putting their hand to the plow who turns back, is fit for the Kingdom of God.
Back to Luke 9.
And he said to all, “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross daily
and follow me. 24 For whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake
will save it. 25 For what does it profit a man if he gains the whole world and loses or forfeits himself?”
How about that for an “alter” call? What was Jesus’ point in all these statements? They must have truly
upset the very people that were wanting to follow Him. I believe that is the point. Jesus wants to
“upset” your life. He actually does want you to renounce your former goals and direction and take on
Kingdom goals and His mission.
You are reading this because you have an interest in disciple making. But again, you cannot make a
disciple, until you are a disciple. And the call to be a disciple is the call to renounce and give up
everything and come and follow Jesus. You cannot ask another to do this while not having done it
yourself. Mark 1 and Matthew 4 say that the disciples dropped their nets at once and went and
followed Him. They walked away from their family businesses. They walked away from any normal
life, possibly damaging their livelihoods and destroying their reputations. Depending on your career
situation you may merely need to reorder your time away from work. I ask, have you dropped your
nets? Only you can decide to be a disciple. Only you must work out what it looks like, in YOUR life.
For me, after leaving a career of being an entrepreneur, I purposefully determined to look for
something to pay my bills and leave enough for me to help others while funding my work in the
Kingdom. I was working to disciple six men from terrible backgrounds in the poorest two zip codes of
America. We met one week night, spent almost all Saturdays together actually serving others, sharing
and doing life together. Then we often worshiped together on Sunday’s and spoke all during the week
about life issues. We ate together and mowed each others lawns. We meet informally and did, life
together and shared with the lost. While I went to work each day, it was to fund my endeavors for the
Kingdom. Not to keep up with the Jones’s, improve my life on this earth or make myself comfortable.
I have a brother in the states that has turned down promotions that would have consumed his time and
limited his ability to reach out to the lost and make disciples. Another, that has chosen to live in a very
simple apartment and drive an older car so that he can maximize his resources for the Kingdom. Only
you know what you need to do to make disciples. But you must drop the nets of this world to take on
the yoke of your Master. You can not serve God and mammon. It is impossible.
In 1 Corinthians 9:8 Paul tells us that God is able to bless us abundantly so that we can have all we
NEED and have enough left over for “every good work”. Jesus tells the crowd of listeners, surely
containing the poor, tradesmen and the more well to do, to not worry about food or clothing. We
thought these were pretty words and admired them as well written beautiful prose. Jesus was telling
His disciples how to live this life of discipleship.
You expected a a simple “Ten Steps to Disciple-making” article or book. Sorry. Jesus said it cost
everything. And when you change your allegiance from the values and priorities of the world and
become a disciple it changes everything. And for many of us that means our careers, finances and our
place in society.
I did not write the verses and it is not my teaching. It is the clear, consistent teaching of Jesus.
Mammon is not just money, but all that it brings. You must choose God or mammon. The bible
promises you will hate one and love the other. I suggest this is not an emotional love and hate, but a
love and hate that can be measured in time allocation, the expenditure of money and resources, energy
spent and passion applied. Who or what do you love when you work 50 hours a week at a secular job,
pouring in your heart and soul and then pray for 10 minutes a day, read your bible for 20 and attend
church three hours a week? Again, who are you serving when almost all your time is dedicated to your
career? Or worse, your leisure. Where is your passion going.
Jesus tells a parable that is a fact of life. The story of the soils. Seed falls on many different types of
“hearts” in the lesson. The seed falling among some ground refers to someone who hears the word,
receives it with enthusiasm, but the worries of this life and the lure of wealth choke the word, making it
unfruitful. Mt 13:22. We imagine we are immune. We are not.
Now, right now, you have a hundred things racing through your mind. “What is this nut, Glenn, asking
me to do? Quit my job and go into full time ministry? I thought that I was going to learn how to make a
disciple. You know, how to teach a discipleship class or something. Perhaps a three point lesson or a get
a discipleship manual”. Perhaps “The Five Simple Secrets of Being a Disciple Maker!” Sorry, friends,
only Jesus gets to set the standard. His call makes men drop their nets, blow up their lives, give up their
dreams. Renounce our former direction and come and follow Him. It sounds a lot like true repentance.
Jesus is asking you to turn in and abandon the American Dream for the Kingdom Dream. He set the
standard on being a disciple. Who gave us permission to lower that standard. (Quote from Marc, a dear brother that is a full-time missionary to Africa). And dear brother you can’t make a disciple, till you are one.
So before I can give you any information on technique, teachings, or other information I have to make
sure you understand YOUR cost. It not only cost everything to become a disciple, but again, you can
never make true disciples until you are one. You will reproduce after your own kind. So if you don’t
surrender all and become a disciple to His standards, then you will reproduce mutants. Half breeds and
unfit agents for the Kingdom. If you reproduce at all.
Don’t forget, the rich young ruler walked away sad. Because he had much. I hope you don’t. Will you
drop your nets in this life and become fishers of men? Don’t quit your job. But, it could come to that
for some of you. Seriously. A career decision you made before you surrendered everything to Jesus,
was likely a decision that reflects a different set of loyalties than those required to be and make a
disciple. You can’t have two masters.
I was never commanded in the Word to be a publisher. I was commanded to make disciples. Before, I
was many things. I was a publisher, a business owner and entrepreneur. And before I became a
disciple, I started sharing my faith every Saturday at a ministry. I stopped tailgating and drinking at
football games. I led 267 people to pray the sinner’s prayer in about 18 months. Later, I began to
understand the vast majority never grew. The seed seldom took. There was little fruit. I began to seek
God about making disciples. I read the books I mentioned and I met Marc . I was never the
same. I realized that being a good entrepreneur or publisher meant squat to God. He called us all to
make disciples who obeyed ALL that Jesus commanded.
And that is where I am going to take you next.
I am going to ask you to count the cost, but you can’t even count the cost if you don’t know what it is.
When Jesus laid down Luke 9, 14 and Matthew 10, He did so to people that had heard the Gospel of
the Kingdom. They heard that they should lay up NO treasure on the earth. Learned that how they
treated the least of these would impact eternity. They understood the radical cost of turning the other
cheek and loving even their enemies. You can’t make a disciple unless you are one. And Jesus defines
an important aspect of making disciples in the Great Commission and it will be in our next lesson.
Teaching them to obey all that I have commanded you. And my dear brother and sister, He commanded
some radical things.
The early church obeyed Him and turned the world upside down. You cannot teach others to obey what
you don’t even believe needs obeying. You cannot teach others to obey, if you don’t obey. Like I said,
you cannot make a disciple if you are not a disciple.
I hope you are not turning away, like the rich young ruler. You can’t love this world and follow the
Lord. Read those books. Pray and question everything you thought you knew about being and making
disciples. But soon we will ask if you want to come and follow Jesus.
God bless you and please pray for me.
Glenn (A missionary to Africa from the US)